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The details vary widely, but the basic interface and functionality is the same: there is a section of the page that contains a largish for entering HTML markup and a preview area where that markup is displayed.When the form is submitted the preview section is updated.Content models may be open or closed; you can declare a document structurally valid based on a single all-important rule; or you can create rules for each and every element and attribute that may appear in the document -- the choice is yours.This month we will be looking at the Perl implementation of the Schematron: my element in the context of the abstract root.Schematron's secret is that it's most often implemented as an XSLT stylesheet, in which the Schematron stylesheet is applied to the schema and the result of that transformation is applied as a stylesheet to the document being validated.The same is true with most flavors of except that the stylesheet is created dynamically and all the details hidden from view.It uses the XPath syntax to define a series of rules that should or should not be true about a given document's structure.Those rules, and the context in which they are evaluated, can be as coarse or as finely-grained as the task at hand requires.

At the time of this writing, you must use XML:: Xerces to validate while using SAX, or to validate against W3C Schema.How then do you ensure that the XML content being authored is correct?There are DTDs, which can be used with validating parsers, but DTDs require that the content model be explicitly described, which can be tricky for mixed content (e.g., elements that can contain both character data and other elements).Schematron may not completely replace DTDs or W3C Schemas for stricter XML systems, but the value that it provides for the minimal time investment makes it a big winner in my book. At the time of this writing, XML:: Lib XML could only validate with DOM parsing—validation is not available with SAX-style parsing.

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