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As early as the first millennium BCE, Chinese states thus provided formal veterinary care for horses (15).One of the earliest equine veterinary texts is credited to a Chinese author from the Spring and Autumn Period, 770–476 BCE, and over subsequent centuries, veterinary care of horses played an increasingly formalized role in Chinese government bureaucracy and state infrastructure (15).
This osteological evidence for horse riding coincides with the first clear evidence for mobile, horse-based pastoralism, suggesting a link between changes in horse transport and the intensification of nomadic herding in the Eastern Steppes (7, 10).
The first definitive record of horse dentistry also comes from early Chinese veterinary texts dating to 600 BCE, which describe the method of aging a horse through changes in its dentition (21, 22).
During the Roman Empire, Aristotle and others made detailed mention of equine periodontal disease in their writings (21).
Because of the importance of oral equipment for horse riding, dentistry is an essential component of modern horse care.
In the open grasslands of northeast Asia, horses remain the primary form of transport for many herders.